1948.00.De Worms and Co. Ltd.Newcastle.Historique de la succursale (1848-1948)

 

Note de synthèse préparatoire à la rédaction du livre intitulé "Un Centenaire - 1848-1948 - Worms & Cie"

NB. La copie image de ce document, de mauvaise qualité, n'a pas été conservée.

Worms & Co. Ltd
Newcastle-on-Tyne

Newcastle as a coal producing centre
Newcastle-on-Tyne has always been famous for its coal. The Saxons used coal as fuel, for we read of twelve cart loads of fossil, or pit coal, being sent to Peterborough Cathedral in the year 852. The new fuel came more and more into general use, until in 1306 it was complained of in Parliament as a public nuisance "which was thought to corrupt the air with it's stink and smoke", and it's further use in London was prohibited by proclamation "to avoid the sulfurous smoke and savour of the firing". For domestic use it was doubtless then very unsuitable on account of the construction of the fire-places made to burn wood. But soon after the proclamation just named, we hear of new "iron chimneys" or fire places for burning coal. Then we find it burned in Royal Palaces, and probably it soon came into general household use.
From then onwards, the coal trade became increasingly important, and regular shipments were made by sailing vessels which carried the coal to London and which then extended to the Continent and far distant lands. France was particularly interested in receiving this commodity, especially after the discovery of the use of coal-gas for lighting purposes.

Establishment of Hypolite Worms as importers
In 1848, Mr Hypolite Worms decided to import British coals into France, and he established an office in Paris, nominating at the same time as his representative in Newcastle Mr Arthur Pring whose office was at 41, Quayside - the building shown immediately on the right of the Customs House in the engraving and with smoke emanating from the chimney. At some later date the office was transferred to Customs House Chambers, n°35 Quayside, on the immediate left of the Customs House. Whilst there is no record of the date of removal, it is possible that this took place towards the end of 1854 and that the original office was burnt out. The following extract from a history of Newcastle may well account for the change:
"The most appalling and terrible catastrophe which ever occurred in the towns of Newcastle and Gateshead took place on 6th October 1854 about 1 .a.m. A factory near the riverside in Gateshead was discovered to be on fire and the flames soon extended to an adjoining warehouse which contained immense stores of iron, lead, manganese, nitrate of soda, copperas, naphta and salt, and a tremendous explosion resulted rocking the two towns to their foundations. The ships in the river were nearly blown out of the water and fires started among the crowded buildings on the Quayside for a space of one hundred and twenty yards and in other parts of the town, and when the sun rose there was such a scene as has never been witnessed on the Tyne."
At any rate these offices at Customs House Chambers were occupied by us for a very long period until 1913.

Mr Arthur Pring.
Mr Pring appears to have been educated in France, for many of his earlier notes are written in French and his figures - particularly 5's - are inscribed in the French style. This combination of Mr Worms in Paris and Mr Pring in Newcastle facilitated the shipment of Northumberland Steam Coals from Blyth and the Northern banks of the River Tyne, and Durham steam, gas and coking coals from the south banks of the Tyne and from the River Wear at Sunderland.

Early business transactions.
The earliest record of a cargo which we have been able to discover in our archives is dated 16th August 1849, relating to a cargo of Lambton coals sold to Mr Worms by the Trustees of the Earl of Durham per Mr Pring. The price charged was 19/- per "chaldron" which works out at about 7/3d per ton.

Measurements of coal.
It may be mentioned at this point, that in those days coals were sold per "keel" (21 1/5th tons) or "Chaldron" (S tons 13 cwts), and there were 8 chaldrons to one keel. This arose from the fact that coals were conveyed from one part of the river to another by "keels", which were a kind of barge or lighter, whilst the wagons bringing the coals from the Collieries were called "chaldrons", and by custom their contents were accepted as standard weights.

Keels taking coals to ships loading at Newcastle-on-Tyne.
Early chartering. The records of business transactions in the early history of the firm are somewhat meagre, but in 1856 we find Mr Pring was chartering ships for Constantinople at
£ 45.10.0 per keel; Malta (23 keels) £ 33.10.0; Marseilles (15 keels) £ 31.0.0; Alexandria
£ 32.10.0 and Civita Vecchia £ 32.10.0. This activity towards the Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean can no doubt be attributed to the Crimean War. There is a reference in each of the above fixtures to "chapeau" varying from £ 2.2.0 to £ 10.0.0., from which it may be assumed that a part from the rate of freight agreed between the Merchant and the Captain representing his Owners, there was also some bargaining in connection with buying the Captain "a new hat" - or in other words a gratuity, and this term is known to this day amongst Shipbrokers. In the same year, Mr Pring was also chartering for France on the basis of £ 13 per keel for Dieppe and
£ 18.12.0 for Le Havre.

Mr Worms in Newcastle.
On 22nd January 1856, it is mentioned that Mr Worms left for Hull and Mr Josse for Grimsby.

Development of Dock and rail facilities.
In 1857 the Northumberland Dock on the North banks of the Tyne were opened in order to facilitate the shipment of coal, followed in 1859 by the opening of Tyne Dock on the southern bank. Meantime in 1858, the new High Level Bridge linking Newcastle and Gateshead for Rail and Road traffic was opened, and this meant that Northumberland coals could be transferred to the south bank of the Tyne for vessels requiring these qualities.
However, at that time sea colliers could not proceed further up the river than Newcastle owing to the existence of a low stone bridge, which can be seen in the accompanying engraving below the High Level Bridge, and it was not until 1867 that the Swing Bridge was opened and which now allows vessels to load up to cargoes of 10 000 tons of coal in the higher reaches of the river at Dunston.


Early coal prices.
In 1861, Mr Pring records some of the prices of coals charged to various clients:

Hastings/Davisons/Bebside

8/6d

per ton less

2½%

Hetton

7/6d

per ton less

1½%

Hetton Nuts

5/-d

per ton less

1½%


There are two notes by Mr Pring in the same year, as follows:-
(a) Eu la visite de M. Ch. Novack d'Odessa. Il me donnera des ordres pour Odessa. Le chargement "Flora" est pour son compte. Toute affaire doit passer par l'entremise de Puggi de Cardiff.
(b) Planat & Cie. Cognac .- Reçu 7 décembre 1861 la visite de Mr Boucher. Cette maison désire 8000 tonnes charbons pour faire des bouteilles. Je lui ai offert Hollywell ou Towneley à 7/- par tonne, escompte 2%. Contre paiement à courts jours.

Prices in 1862.

Londonderry Large

8/6d

per ton less

5%

Londonderry Nuts

5/3d

per ton less

1%

Ramsey coke

15/-d

per ton less

1%

Prices charged to Vacher et Tilley, Morlaix:

Davisons/Bebside

8/6d

per ton less

2½%


Memorandum of Charter Party 1862.
An interesting copy of Memorandum of Charter Party relating to a fixture from South Dock, Sunderland, to Alexandria is attached.

Contracts in 1867.
We appear to have had a contract with Lambton at the following prices:

Large

10/-d

per ton less

7½%

Nuts

8/-d

per ton less

7½%

Wear Steam

8/6d

per ton less

7½%

Unscreened Steam

7/6d

per ton less

5%


Management of Steamers.
In 1867, Mr Pring appeared to be managing several ships - the "Charles Mitchell", "Joseph Srakers" and "Brancepeth", and it is interesting to note the wages paid to the Master and crew of the "Charles Mitchell":

Captain

£17

per month and

2/6d per day

Mate

£2.10.0

per week

 

2nd Mate

£1.18.6

per week

 

Carpenter

£1.15.0

per week

 

Steward

£1.14.6

per week

 

8 seamen

£1.8.0

per week

 

Engineer

£3.10.0

per week

 

2nd engineer

£2.10.0

per week

 

Leading stoker

£1.12.0

per week

 

4 firemen

£1.10.0

per week

 

Boy

15.0

per week

 

21 men in all
In 1870, Mr Pring appears to have been part Owner and Manager of a Steamer called the "Vibilia", which was constructed by Mrs J. Wigham Richardson & Co of Wallsend, Now Mrs Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson Ltd. This vessel performed two voyages to Calcutta' and one to New York, and thereafter appears to have been sold. Attached is a record of her progress through the Suez Canal in 1873 - 4 years after the opening of the canal, from which it will be seen that she grounded twice, but was able to proceed on her journey.

Prices of coal in 1884.
It is recorded that we bought 2 500 tons of Bothal Small for shipment over 12 months - at 2/6d per ton net fob Tyne Dock, with usual extras for delivery at other ports.

Mr G. Charles Ward.
Although we have no definite evidence available. It would appear that Mr G. Charles Ward took over the management of this office from Mr Pring about 1885 and he continued in this capacity until 31st December 1913.

Memorandum of Charter Party 1886.
A copy of Memorandum of Charter Party relating to a fixture from South Dock, Sunderland to Santa Rosalia, Mexico, is attached herewith.

1885/1913.
During the period up to 1914, business seems to have followed a normal trend, with increasing activity and large shipments taking place for account of Mrs Worms & Cie's own Houses, to all the important Gas and Electricity undertakings, and to Bunker Depots owned by Mrs. James Burness & Sons Ltd, London.

W. Torry.
Mr William Torry took over the Management of this office from Mr G. Charles Ward on the 1st January 1914, and about this time our offices were transferred from Customs House Chambers, 35 Quayside, to Bank Chambers, Sandhill immediately opposite the Commercial Exchange. Not only were they more modern, but they were convenient for attending the sessions on Change.

1914/1918 War.
It was natural that coal shipments to France during this period should be of first rate importance, and Worms & Co being one of the principals Shippers were extremely active.

After the conclusion of the war, prices and rates of freight sored to extraordinary heights. However, shipments were stopped in 1921 by a Miners Strike and an uneasy period followed in the coal trade, culminating in the disastrous General Strike in 1926 which lasted from February until November. Thus, instead of exporting coals, this Country was importing from the Continent and America.
The result of this as far as French business was concerned was that the French Mines made prodigious efforts to increase output, and the Polish Mines developed a large trade to France, the effects of which were felt by the British coal trade for many years.

R. Chambers.
On 1st January 1933, Mr R. Chambers succeeded Mr W. Torry as Manager, and at the suggestion of his old friend Mr J. E. Dawson, Managing Director of Mrs France, Fenwick Tyne & Wear Co. Ltd and the Wearmouth Collieries, our offices were transferred to a suit in their own Building at Mercantile Chambers, Quayside.

1939/1945 War.
As soon as war had been declared, and French Coal and Shipping Missions had been established in London, it was decided to send Mr L. C. Tomlinson, Assistant Manager, to London in order to co-ordinate the shipments of coal and coke from all the British Coalfields to France and the French Colonies and to effect liaison with the Missions on behalf of Worms & Cie.
In June 1940, when shipments to France were no longer possible, it was decided to form the British Offices into a Limited Company with Head Office in London, managed by Mrs James Burness & Sons Ltd.
Mr Chambers continued in Newcastle with a skeleton staff during the war years and moved to our present fine offices at 17, .Sandhill, facing the Exchange.

L. C. Tomlinson.
On 1st September 1945, Mr L. C. Tomlinson, returning from war service, took over the Management of the office, assisted by Mr N. S. Taylor (also returned from war service), and Mr P. Scott.

Extension of activities.
A small amount of inferior quality coal was shipped to France during the latter part of 1945 and early 1946, but thereafter no coal was available for export owing to reduced production in Great Britain and home requirements.
This office, however, obtained the Agency of a number of new vessels under construction in the Tyne and at Sunderland, and other vessels trading between this Country and the Far East.
In 1947, whilst business in coal was at a standstill, a Sea and Air Travel Dept was inaugurated, and this office is now the recognised Agents for all the Regular Air Lines and also the principal Steamship Companies, with business taking on ever increasing activity.
Meantime, as we celebrate our Centenary, exports of coal are being resumed on a modest scale, and whilst the political and economical outlook is as yet uncertain, the future is nevertheless viewed with confidence.

Managers of Newcastle office.

   

Service with Messrs Worms

Arthur Pring

1848 to about 1885

about 37 years

G. Charles Ward

about 1885 to 31 Dec. 1913

not known but considerable period

William Torry

1 Jan. 1914 to 31 Dec. 1932

50 years

Robert Chambers

1 Jan. 1933 to 31 Aug. 1945

53 years

Lucien Charles Tomlinson

1 Sep. 1945 to still serving

14 years (including war service)


Note re Grimsby office
From a letter from Mr Robinson, Manager of Grimsby office: It is believed the Grimsby office commenced in 1855. It was in this year that Mr Henry Josse, acting as Agent for the House of Hypolite Worms, commenced his commercial operations in that port.

Some coal prices or coal contracts

1849

Lambton Steam Wallsend Coals

7/3 d

per ton

 

1861

Holywell or Towneley

7/- d

per ton

less 2%

 

Hastings, Davisons, Bebside

8/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Hetton

7/6 d

per ton

less 2¼%

1862

Davisons, Bebside

8/6 d

per ton

less 1%

1867

Stella

7/3 d

per ton

less 1¼%

 

New Pelton

7/9d d

per ton

less 5%

 

Lambton Large - Contract

10/- d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Lambton Nuts- Contract

8/- d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Lambton Wear - Contract

8/6 d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Holmside

7/3 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Pelton

7/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

1868

Old Garesfield

6/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Old Garesfield Coke

13/6 d

per ton

less 5%

 

Ramsey

6/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Ramsey Coke

13/6 d

per ton

less 5%

 

West Leversons

7/- d

per ton

net

 

New Pelton

7/- d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Lambton Large

9/6 d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Unscreened

7/6 d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Wear Steam contract

8/ d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Gas

6/6 d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Nuts

7/6 d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Hetton Large

9/ d

per ton

less 2½%

 

North Hetton Nuts

7/- d

per ton

less 5%

1869

Lambton Steam

8/6 d

per ton

less 5%

 

Wear Steam

7/- d

per ton

less 5%

 

Unscreened contract

7/- d

per ton

less 5%

 

Nuts

7/- d

per ton

less 5%

 

Gas

6/- d

per ton

less 5%

 

Hetton Large

8/6 d

per ton

less 5%

 

Nuts

6/6 d

per ton

less 5%

 

Brancepeth coke

16/ d

per ton

less 1%

 

West Leversons

6/- d

per ton

less 5%

1870

Bebside Large

10/- d

per ton

less 7½%

 

Pelaw Main/North Pelton/Stella/Leversons/

     
 

West Leversons Gas coals

6/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Brancepeth gas coals

7/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

1871

Bebside Large

11/- d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Walkers gas coals

5/5 d

per ton

net

 

West Leversons/North Pelton/Holmside/

     
 

Washington/Pelaw Main/West Pelaw Gas

6/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Waldridge/New Pelton/Stella/Loversons gas

7/- d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Brancepeth gas

8/- d

per ton

less 2½%

 

New Pelton (15 000 tons to Alexandria over 1872)

7/- d

per ton

less 5%

 

Waldridge 1872 to Naples

6/9 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Waldridge 1873 to Naples

7/- d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Brancepeth to Dieppe, 15 000 p.a. 1872

7/6 d

per ton

less 1½%

 

Brancepeth to Dieppe, 15.000 p.a. 1873

8/- d

per ton

less 2½%

1872

Washington Gas for Genoa

7/3 d

per ton

net

 

Cowpen for Dieppe

10/- d

per ton

net

 

Lambton gas for Dieppe

9/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

East Brancepeth Gas for Bordeaux

9/6 d

per ton

less 3¾%

 

Waldridge Gas for Dieppe/Rouen

11 d

per ton

less 2½%

1873

Brancepeth (Contract 1 year)

16/- d

per ton

net

1875

Brancepeth

10/ d

per ton

net

1876

Washington Gas coals

7/3 d

per ton

net

1877

Holmside Gas coals

7/6d d

per ton

less 2½%

 

East Brancepeth Gas coals

7/ d

per ton

less 5%

1878

Brancepeth

7/9d

per ton

less 1¼%

 

New Pelton & Pelaw Main

7/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Waldridge & Holmside

7/- d

per ton

less 2½%

 

West Leversons

7/- d

per ton

net

 

New Pelaw & North Pelton

6/9 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Washington & Deans Primrose

6/6 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Felling

6/3 d

per ton

less 2½%

 

Walker

6/- d

per ton

less 2½%

1879

East Brancepeth (contract) over 1880

6/- d

per ton

less 1¼%

1982

Cowpen Large (contract)

8/6 d

per ton

net

1883

Cowpen Large (contract)

9/6 d

per ton

 

1884

Bothal Small

2/6 d

per ton

net Tyne Dck

1885

Cowpen Large (contract

8/6 d

per ton

net

   

8/9 d

per ton

net

   

9/- d

per ton

net

1886

Cowpen Large (contract)

8/6 d

per ton

net

   

8/7½ d

per ton

net

 

Washington Unscreened cif Dieppe

10/3 d

per ton

over 2 years

 

Washington Unscreened cif Honfleur

11/6 d

per ton

over 2 years

 

Washington Unscreened cif St.Malo

12/3 d

per ton

over 2 years

             


Thereafter, entries cease.

Coals
Average declared value per ton (fob)

Year

Newcastle

North & South shields

Sunderland

1848

7. 4d

7.11d

5. 5d

1849

7. 4d

7.10d

 

1850

7. 3d

7. 8d

5. 7d

1851

7. 3d

7. 7d

5. 0d

1852

7. 2d

7. 3d

5. 8d

1853

7. 3d

7. 4d

5. 7d

1854

8.10d

8. 9d

6.10d

1855

9. 0d

9. 0d

7. 3d

1856

9. 0d

8.10d

7. 1d

1857

9. 1d

8. 4d

7. 4d

1858

9. 0d

8. 2d

7. 3d

1859

8.10d

8. 2d

7. 2d

1860

8. 5d

8. 1d

6.10d

1861

8. 3d

8. 0d

6.11d

1862

8. 4d

8. 0d

7. 1d

1863

8. 3d

8. 1d

7. 0d

1864

8. 3d

8. 2d

7. 1d

1865

8. 9d

8. 5d

7. 7d

1866

9. 3d

8. 8d

8. 6d

1867

9. 8d

9. 3d

8. 8d

1868

9. 4d

9. 4d

8. 4d

1869

9. 0d

8. 7d

8. 0d

1870

9. 0d

8. 4d

8. 0d

1871

9. 0d

9. 0d

8. 1d

1872

14. 5d

13. 0d

14. 2d

1873

20.11d

20. 2d

1874

16.11d

16.11id

1875

13. 4d

12. 5d

1876

10. 9d

10. 1d

1877

9.10d

9. 5d

1878

8. 9d

8. 4d

1879

7.10d

7. 6d

1880

8. 0d

7. 9d

1881

7.10d

7. 8d

1882

7.11d

8. 1d

1883

8. 1d

8. 1d

1884

7.11d

7. 11d

1885

7. 7d

7. 7d

1886

7. 3d

7. 4d

1887

7. 2d

7. 3d

1888

7. Id

7. 2d

1889

8. 4d

8. 3d

1890

11. 5d

12. 2d

1891

10. 6d

11. 3d

1892

9. 8d

10. 0d

1893

8. 9d

8. 1d

1894

8.11d

9. 5d

1895

7.11d

8. 5d

1896

7. 5d

7.10d

1897

7. 5d

8. 0d

1898

8. 6d

8. 8d

1899

9. 6d

9.11d

1900

15. 0d

15.11d

1901

11. 6d

12. 5d

1902

10. 5d

11. 1d

1903

9.11d

10. 9d

1904

9. 1d

9.11d

1905

8.10d

9.8d

1906

9. 5d

10. 1d

1907

10.10d

11. 6d

1908

11. 0d

12. 1d

1909

9. 4d

10. 1d

1910

9.10d

10. 7d

1911

9. 5d

9. 9d

1912

10. 9d

10.10d

1913

12. 4d

12.11d

1914

11.10d

12. 8d

1915

14. 3d

14. 3d

1916

22. 8d

21. 4d

1917

26. 0d

25. 3d

1918

29.11d

32. 3d

1919

48. 4d

54. 4d

1920

82. 9d

79. 9d

1921

34. 3d

34. 3d

1922

21. 0d

22. 3d

1923

24. 7d

24. 3d

1924

21.11d

22. 9d

1925

17. 1d

17.11d

1926

15. 9d

16. 1d

1927

15. 7d

16. 3d

1928

13. 7d

14. 2d

1929

14. 2d

14. 5d

1930

14. 8d

15. 2d

1931

13. 6d

14. 3d

1932

13. 1d

14. 0d

1933

12.11d

13.10d

1934

12.11d

13.10d

1935

13. 1d

13.10d

1936

13. 7d

13.10d

1937

16. 1d

16. 0d

1938

18.11d

18. 9d

           


1939 not available but after war years and coal not exported.

1948

about 72. 6d

about 72. 6d


Freight rates (From Tyne area)

Year

Dieppe

Marseilles

Algiers

Alexandria

1856

£13 per keel

£20 per keel

 

£32 per keel

 

(12/3 per ton)

(28/3 per ton)

 

(31/7 per ton)

1865

   

£21 per keel

 
     

(20/- per ton)

 

1868

£7/10 per keel

 

21 F per ton

 
 

(7/1d per ton)

     

1871

6/9d per ton

     


Average freight rates (per ton) 

Year

Dieppe

Rouen

Bordeaux

Marseilles

Algiers

Alexandria

Port-Said

1884

4/3½

5/8¾

5/3½

11/2¾

9/8

10/9

11/5¼

1885

4/4

5/5¾

5/3½

9/10½

8/2½

9/3½

9/5½

1886

4/4

5/4¾

5/-

9/10½

8/2½

9/0½

9/3¼

1887

4/3

5/5¾

4/10¼

8/7

8/3

8/9

8/7

1888

5/11½

6/1

5/9½

9/4½

8/11¼

8/10½

8/10½

1889

5/4½

6/1

5/10½

10/1

9/3

9/4½

10/-

1890

4/9

5/11

5/3¼

7/5

7/1¼

7/10¼

8/1¾

1891

4/9¾

5/9

5/2½

7/2½

7/-

6/8½

7/2

1892

4/5

5/5¾

4/7

7/2½

7/0½

6/11¼

7/0¼

1893

4/7

5/6¾

4/5½

6/7½

6/-

6/2

6/0¾

1894

4/2¼

5/2¾

4/2¾

5/4½

5/2¾

5/0¾

5/3½

1895

4/3¼

5/3½

4/0¼

5/5

4/10

5/1

5/6

1896

4/3¾

5/2½

4/1

6/5½

5/10½

6/5½

5/11¾

1897

4/4¾

5/5¼

4/0¼

7/6

6/3½

7/4½

7/3½

1898

4/7

5/7

4/4½

8/9¾

7/6

8/10

8/4½

1899

4/10

5/8½

4/6½

9/1¾

7/8¾

10/0½

9/7½

1900

5/4½

6/5½

6/7½

10/2¾

9/11¼

12/-

11/11¼

1901

4/1½

4/11¼

4/3

6/9¼

5/10

7/4½

7/1

1902

4/1¾

4/11

4/1½

5/5

5/2½

5/4¾

5/4

1903

3/10½

4/10¼

3/10¾

5/9½

5/5

5/9¼

5/7½

1904

3/8¾

4/8¼

3/8½

5/7

5/3

5/4

5/4

1905

3/9½

5/-

3/9

6/4

5/10½

6/3¼

6/-

1906

4/4¾

5/2

4/-

6/6

5/9½

6/8

6/1¼

1907

4/6¾

4/11¾

4/5½

6/8½

6/4¾

7/3

6/5

1908

3/11¼

4/5½

3/11

6/1¼

5/8¾

6/6¼

6/3

1909

3/11½

4/6¾

3/10½

5/11¼

5/6¼

6/1

5/8¼

1910

4/0½

4/7¾

4/2¾

6/4

5/6

6/4¾

 

1911

4/11

5/0¼

5/7

7/5¾

6/8¼

7/6¼

 

1912

5/10¾

6/5¾

6/9¾

11/3½

10/1

11/10½

10/2¾

1913

5/-

5/3¼

5/8

8/10¼

8/1½

9/6¾

9/5½

1914

5/7

6/8

7/2½

9/5¼

8/4½

8/3½

11/1¾

1915

17/8¾

18/9

24/2½

33/8¾

27/2½

36/10

32/3

1916

26/-x

27/6x

51/6½

80/6¾

56/10

84/3

84/8½

1917

26/-x

27/6x

40/-x

63/6x

53/6x

-

-

1918

21/-x

22/-x

34/-x

63/6x

53/6x

63/-

188/7

1919

21/-x

21/6x

34/-x

51/6x

44/-x

52/6x

52/6x

1919°

39/5

43/9½

47/9½

69/-

65/-

-

63/5½

(x denotes limitation rates)
(1919°: second part 1919 after lifting of controls)

1920

33/10¾

37/4

38/10

38/3¼

51/5

-

41/3

1921

7/5

7/5½

8/11

15/3

13/2

16/11

15/4

1922

6/0¼

6/2½

7/6

12/2

10/11½

15/2

14/2¾

1923

5/8

5/6½

6/8½

10/9½

9/10

11/10

11/3

1924

4/2½

4/4½

5/10

10/1½

9/4b

11/5

10/11b

1925

3/9½

3/11

5/2½

9/4½

8/9

10/-

10/4

1926

4/1

4/1½

5/9

10/4

9/10

12/0½

11/2

1927

3/10

4/0½

5/1½

9/6a

9/1a

11/2a

10/11a

1928

3/9¼

3/10a

5/2½

8/9

8/6b

10/2½

10/0½

1929

4/9½

4/8½

6/5½

10/0½

9/5½

11/7

11/0½

1930

3/6½

3/8½

4/11b

7/2½

7/3

7/6

7/2½

1931

3/4½

3/8

4/7a

7/1½

7/3a

7/2a

6/8

1932

3/7½

3/9½

4/9½

7/2½

7/4½

6/11b

6/6½

1933

3/4½

4/0a

4/7

6/9b

6/11½

6/2a

6/0½

1934

3/6a

4/1

4/7

7/1b

7/4

6/9

6/5

1935

3/8

4/4½

4/9a

7/7½

7/7

7/7b

7/5½

1936

3/11½

4/6b

5/2

6/11½

7/2½

6/10

6/7½

1937

5/6½

6/0a

9/1½

11/8a